Conditions That A Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeon Treats

What You Must Know About Pediatric Dentistry

Oral health does not have to be a hard thing to do. However, it is often a hard task for most people to take care of their teeth. This is because bad habits die hard. If everyone were to be taught of proper oral health from a young age, Houston pediatric dentists would have an easier time doing their job. It is why pediatric dentistries exist all over the world.

What Is A Pediatric Dentistry?

Pediatric dentistry is a specialty of dentistry that is concerned with offering dental care to children. Pediatric dentists specialize in children’s teeth. Children have unique oral needs that cannot be addressed in the same measure as adult teeth. The mouths of children keep changing from infancy through to teenagehood. Pediatric dentists are well equipped and trained to handle the changes in the mouths of children. Besides, children are not the best in taking care of their teeth, unless with a proper guide like at greenway pediatric dentistry.

What Types of Treatments Do Pediatric Dentists Provide?

When you visit pediatric dentistry in Houston, TX, there is a lot you can expect. Pediatric dentists take care of many oral tasks on kids’ mouths, including the following:

  • Tooth extraction: children have to lose their baby teeth to make room for a new set of teeth to grow. While the teeth may fall off naturally, it is not always the case. In most cases, a tooth will be shaky from the root. Removing it may require very little pressure. For some other situations, some baby teeth can be stubborn. If left unattended to, the permanent teeth will still try to grow over the other tooth. In such cases, a pediatric dentist has to extract the baby tooth to make room for the permanent tooth. This will help avoid malpositioning and overcrowding of teeth in the mouth.
  • Teeth alignment: most children require help from dental devices to get their teeth growing properly. People’s bone structures differ. Some people’s teeth grow correctly aligned, while others do not. A pediatric dentist can ensure the proper alignment of a patient’s teeth while still young. This explains why braces are common among children and teenagers.
  • Habit counseling: does your child still suck his/her thumb even as a teenager? This could be because you did not have the intervention of a pediatric dentist as early as possible. Bad habits are hard to break, especially for kids. Thumb sucking and teeth grinding are the most common habits that kids practice that affect their dental health. A pediatric dentist can help correct this through habit counseling.
  • Preventative dental care: a dentist will observe the state of your child’s teeth to find any underlying

dental problems. If, for example, one of your child’s tooth is headed towards decay, the dentist will suggest preventative measures to protect the teeth. In preventative dental care, dental sealants, dental crowns, and space maintainer are widely used. Other than that, a pediatric dentist will professionally clean your child’s teeth. This will get rid of plaque and bacteria that can cause teeth decay and other issues.

  • Early assessment: you may never know what dental problem your child has. A dentist is best placed at assessing the health of teeth to identify any improper issues as well as anomalies that might result in severe dental problems.
  • Management and repair of teeth: kids are not the best in taking care of teeth. Given their love for candies and playing around, their dental health is easily compromised. Pediatric dentists can manage and repair teeth problems, including cavities, chipped teeth, cracks, stains, to mention a few. This caters for other dental emergencies caused by accidents and injuries.

What are the Treatments that are provided by Pediatric Dentists?

Pediatric dentists provide a whole host of comprehensive dental and oral health care, which includes the following treatments:

  • Oral health exams for the infants. This will include risk assessments for caries in both mother and the child.
  • Preventive dental care. It also include fluoride treatments, cleaning and diet and nutrition recommendations.
  • Habit counseling
  • Early treatment and assessment for correcting improper bite and teeth straightening.
  • Repairing of tooth defects or cavities
  • Diagnosing oral conditions that are related to diseases like congenital heart defect, hay fever, hyperactivity disorder, attention deficit disorder, asthma and diabetes.
  • Care for dental injuries.
  • Management of gum diseases and medical conditions like mucoceles, short frenulae, pediatric periodontal disease and ulcers.

Pediatric Dentistry: 4 Children Dental Facts That You Should Know About

Here are some important things to keep in mind regarding your child’s dental health.

1. Tooth Decay is the Most Common Childhood Disease

Tooth decay is the most prevalent harmful dental condition among children. When untreated, tooth decay will destroy a child’s teeth and have a lasting impact on their overall health. According to the CDC, more than 42% of children between ages 2 to 11 will have a cavity.  Even more startling, cavities are 5 times more common than childhood asthma and 20 times more common than diabetes.

2. Cavities are Preventable

Cavities might be common, but that certainly doesn’t mean you can’t prevent them.  In particular, fluoride is capable of preventing and reversing early stages of tooth decay. How does it work?  Once ingested, fluoride plays a role in strengthening developing teeth. The fluoride is taken to the developing teeth, where it helps reinforce the enamel (the protective layer on the teeth).  Reinforced enamel is much more resistant to tooth decay. It is important to keep in mind, however, that fluoride is not capable of repairing cavities.

3. Candy is Not the Only Cause of Poor Dental Health

There is no doubt that eating candy can certainly lead to cavities. However, it’s not the only thing that’s responsible.  Looking at the big picture, many different types of food can cause tooth decay. In particular, starchy snacks such as cookies, crackers, or bread, can increase a child’s likelihood of developing cavities.  This should not be too surprising,  After all, tooth decay is caused by acid-producing bacteria that consume carbohydrates. In other words, cavities result from microorganisms that feast on the sugars from starchy foods.  After eating these foods, it’s important to brush your child’s teeth.

4. Children Should Go to the Dentist by the Time They’re One Year Old

Most children don’t see a dentist until they are over 2 years old!  This is much later than recommended by dental professionals.  According to the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, you should bring your child in for a dental appointment by the time they are one year old. It is important to remember that baby teeth are crucial for several reasons.  Not only do they help children chew, which is necessary for good nutrition, but baby teeth also play a significant role with speech development. You should not forget that baby teeth help save space for permanent teeth, so taking care of them should be a top priority!

What You Need to Know About Pediatric Dental Care

Many parents assume that since baby teeth fall out anyway, there is little point in worrying about them. Yet pediatric dental care is an essential part of keeping your child healthy. In addition, establishing strong oral care routines in childhood can set your child on the road to a lifetime of good oral health. Here is what you need to know about pediatric dental care.

Teething Issues

Every child is unique, but on average, the first baby tooth will emerge at 4 to 7 months of age, while the last will erupt just before the third birthday. Teething pain and fussiness are common, along with biting behavior, drooling, swollen gums, and lack of appetite. Symptoms normally start 3 to 5 days before a new tooth comes in and end as soon as it breaks through the gums.

To help calm teething issues, give your baby something cold to chew. Teething rings are extremely popular, but it is important to ensure that the fluid inside is nontoxic, as some babies bite through the cover. Rub your baby’s gums regularly with clean gauze.

First Visit/Establishment of a Dental Home

Children who have a dental home are more likely to receive appropriate preventive and routine oral health care. Referral by the pediatrician or health provider is highly recommended, as early as six months of age and no later than 12 months.  We will tailor this appointment to your child’s personality and needs. The first visit will be a quick examination and fluoride varnish application in addition to a very extensive educational and preventive component.

Oral Hygiene

Tooth decay can begin with the very first tooth. Gently brush your baby’s teeth with a small toothbrush and an smear of fluoride-free toothpaste. Once he learns to spit, typically at around 2 years old, increase the quantity of toothpaste  to a pea size.

Learning by Example

Kids pay more attention to what you do than to what you say. Take the opportunity to make a renewed commitment to your own oral health. Reduce your sugar intake and increase the amount of water you drink. Have any nagging dental problems corrected, and make twice a year dental appointments for yourself as well as your child.

Things to Watch For

Managing your child’s dental health means keeping in touch with what’s going on with their teeth in between visits to the dentist. You’ll want to ask regular questions to your child during tooth brushing sessions, including finding out if they have any teeth that may be sensitive or causing pain.

Give your child’s teeth a thorough visual scan under bright light to see if you can spot any cavities or other abnormalities. Use a small dental mirror to see everything on all sides of the teeth. Also, check the teeth for signs of grinding, which is a common occurrence for many children as their jaws grow. If you spot signs of grinding, speak to your dentist right away. It may be necessary to obtain a mouthguard to be worn at night to help alleviate the problem and prevent it from progressing.

Starting Kids Down the Right Path

Your kids oral care needs to be a team effort in order to get the best results and ensure they have the best foundation for their dental health as they grow. As a parent, it’s important that you bridge the gap between your child and their pediatric dentist by managing expectations, keeping up with good habits at home, and working with the dentist to make sure they stay informed with your child’s progress.

Truck Tires That Are Mean Enough To Turn Heads

What safety demands are placed on a tire?

Your tires are the only part of the car that has direct contact with the road. Tires affect your vehicle handling, ride, braking, and safety. For optimum performance, tires must have the correct air pressure, tread depth, balance and the wheels of the vehicle must be properly aligned.

Checking your tires on a regular basis is an important step in protecting your safety and your automotive investment. Ideally, tire inspections should be performed monthly. If you drive over potholes and debris in the road, live in a cold climate, or drive long distances regularly, then you should inspect your tires more often.

Always inspect your tires before a long trip. The more often these inspections are performed, the easier it will be to find a small problem, such as a nail in your tire, and fix it before it becomes a more expensive and time-consuming issue.

Why is tire safety so important?

Your safety, along with the safety of your passengers and other road users, could depend directly on the condition of your vehicle’s tires.

Tire’s must:

  • be the right kind and size for your vehicle
  • be properly inflated
  • be free from defects and
  • have a tread depth of at least 1.6mm

There are three distinct categories of tires:

1. Winter tires have tread patterns that are specially designed to bite into snow and ice. They’re made from softer rubber than normal tires and they stay more flexible in cold weather. This means the tire can grip the road better in snow or icy conditions. Winter tires are labelled ‘MS’ or ‘M&S’ (Mud and Snow) with the alpine symbol as shown in Figure 1.

2. Summer tires are most commonly used in Ireland. This does not mean that they are for use during the summer only—it’s merely the term used to separate them from winter tires in countries where there is a practical need and sometimes a legal requirement to fit winter tires.

3. All-season tires are a cross between summer and winter tires and are designed to cope with all sorts of conditions, including dry roads and rain. They are not specially designed for any one kind of weather condition. All-season tires carry the marking MS or M&S (Mud and Snow) but without the alpine symbol.  

Why is tire safety so important?

Your safety, along with the safety of your passengers and other road users, could depend directly on the condition of your vehicle’s tires.

Tire’s must:

  • be the right kind and size for your vehicle
  • be properly inflated
  • be free from defects and
  • have a tread depth of at least 1.6mm

Tire Problems to Look For During a Visual Inspection

  • Over inflation: Too much air pressure causes mostly the tire’s middle section to contact the road. This creates wear primarily in the center of the tread, with less wear at the tire’s edges.
  • Under inflation: Too little air pressure causes mostly the tire’s outer edges to contact the road. This creates wear primarily on both edges of the tire tread, with less wear in the center.
  • Tread wear on one edge of the tire: This typically occurs when the wheels are out of alignment.
  • Erratic tread wear: This is often called cupping, and may mean the wheel is out of balance, or that the shock absorbers or other suspension components need to be replaced.
  • Raised portion of the tread or sidewall: May indicate that one of the belts in the tire carcass has separated from those next to it.

Tire Problems to Look for While Driving

  • Unusual vibration or thumping noise: Vibration or thumping noises can indicate an out-of-balance tire, one with tread that has a flat spot due to locking the wheels in a panic stop, or a tire with a separated belt.
  • A pull to one side: While driving at a steady speed, pulling to one side may indicate an underinflated or damaged tire on the side of the car to which the vehicle pulls. If this is not the case, a brake problem or poor wheel alignment may be causing the pull.

When Should Your Tires Retire?

No matter how new your tire is, Bridgestone recommends checking inflation pressure every month and scheduling regular inspections with a pro. After five years, an inspection is essential to determine if a tire is still road-worthy.

We recommend tires that were manufactured 10 years prior (or longer) be taken out of service and replaced with new tires. Same goes for the spare. If it’s 10 years old, it needs to be replaced, even if it appears new.

It’s important to note that the age of a tire is not the only indicator of whether it needs to be replaced. Many tires will need to be replaced before 10 years of age due to routine tread wear and other conditions such as punctures, impact damage, improper inflation, overloading and more. If a tire is worn out or otherwise unserviceable from damage or conditions of use, it should be replaced regardless of when it was produced or purchased.

Do I Have To Replace All Four Tires At Once?

Another common tire-buying question is if it’s necessary to replace all four tires at once. The simple answer is yes. It is recommended to replace all four at once because your tires are key to the performance and handling of your vehicle, it’s important for them to be as identical as possible. If your tires don’t match, one end of your vehicle may not be able to respond as quickly as the other, making it difficult to control. Your tires are what keep your vehicle connected to the road, so having an even surface is vital.

If you are in a situation where you will be replacing fewer than four tires, select tires that are similar to what is currently installed on your vehicle. If you are replacing just two tires, those two tires should only be installed on the rear axle. You should only consider tires that are within the same category as your existing ones.

If you have a vehicle that came equipped with a staggered fitment (different size tires on the front and back) then you should check your vehicle owner’s manual for replacement recommendations.

Which Tires Are Better, New or Used?

There are a lot of risks associated with buying used tires. Since you don’t know the history of the tires, it can be difficult to know if they’ve been previously run under inflated, over loaded or have other unseen internal damage which could lead to an unexpected failure. Used tires might also have uneven wear, which can cause noise, vibration or other problems and may need to be replaced much sooner than new tires. It is best to replace tires with new tires of the same category, size, load capacity and speed rating as recommended by your vehicle’s manufacturer.

Checking Air Pressure

  • Remove the tire’s valve cap.
  • Place the gauge over the tire’s valve stem and press firmly so that no escaping air is heard. The tire gauge will indicate how much pressure is in the tire.
  • Adjust the tire’s air pressure as needed. When adding air, push the air hose into the valve firmly, until the air stops escaping. Check the pressure every few seconds to help judge the amount of air going into the tire, until you reach the recommended air pressure. If the tire’s pressure is greater than it should be, use the nipple on the tire gauge to press the center of the tire valve stem and release air.
  • Replace the valve cap.
  • Repeat the process for the other tires. Don’t forget the spare tire.

Tire Maintenance

There are several tire maintenance procedures that automotive repair professionals should do because they require special tools and knowledge. However, understanding these procedures will help you feel more confident in dealing with a repair provider.

Tire Rotation

Tires on the front and the rear of vehicles operate at different loads and perform different steering and braking functions, resulting in unequal wear patterns. To gain maximum life and performance from your tires, it is essential to rotate your vehicle’s tires. Refer to your vehicle’s owner’s manual for mileage recommendations. Usually tire rotation is performed between 5,000 and 7,000 miles. Common on performance cars are tires designed to rotate in a specific direction; these can only be rotated front-to-rear, and if different tire sizes are used on the front and rear axles rotation is not possible.

Tire Balancing

Properly balanced tires help minimize uneven wear and extend their life. When tires are balanced, small weights are attached to the wheels to limit vibration of the tire and wheels as they turn. Newly installed tires should be balanced, and thereafter whenever a vibration is noticed. Balancing is also called for whenever a tire is removed from the wheel, for example to repair a puncture.

Wheel Alignment

Wheel alignment is the measurement of the position of the wheels compared to specifications that the vehicle manufacturers recommend. Each vehicle has specific wheel alignment settings. If any alignment measurement falls outside the specified range, uneven tire wear can result, vehicle handling may be affected and fuel economy can be diminished.

You should have the wheel alignment checked and adjusted when new tires are installed, and thereafter any time when unusual steering characteristics are observed. A vehicle’s wheels are properly aligned when the car will drive down the road in a straight line without drifting or pulling to either side. A drift or pull can be caused by problems other than just alignment, so a thorough inspection should be performed by a qualified shop to determine the exact nature of the problem before an alignment is performed.

How To Get Rid Of A Racoon


Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are opportunistic, intelligent creatures that have adapted well to our urban and suburban landscapes. A general lack of predators combined with easy to access food sources such as garbage cans, compost bins, gardens and outdoor pet food bowls have allowed raccoons to proliferate even in the most developed of areas.

Raccoons are primarily nocturnal animals but can be seen at any time of day. Adult raccoons in the Pacific Northwest typically range in weight between 10 and 25 pounds but can get larger.

They are omnivorous and consume a highly varied diet that includes fruit and vegetables, insects, small rodents, fish and human handouts, as well as pet food and garbage when available.

Raccoons typically den above ground in tree cavities and under downed logs, but will substitute chimneys, attics and crawlspaces where available. Breeding season in the Pacific Northwest extends from early March through early fall. Litters can range from 1-7 kits. Young are weaned at about 2 months of ages but may remain with the mother through the first winter.

Tips for Reducing Human-Raccoon Conflicts

Do not feed raccoons: Deliberate feeding of raccoons makes them more comfortable around humans and more likely to get into situations where they are unwanted or in danger. It also encourages unnaturally high population levels within a small geographic area, which creates a higher risk of disease transmission among the raccoons and increases the likelihood they will become pests.

Feed pets indoors: This will eliminate a raccoon attractant and will diminish the likelihood of an unwanted encounter between your pet and a wild animal.

Tightly cover all garbage cans. Use bungees or other methods for securing the lids if necessary.

Seal up all potential denning locations within your home: Placing caps on chimneys and blocking outside entryways to basements, attics, and under porches will reduce the likelihood that you will wind up sharing your home with a raccoon.

Naturescape for wildlife: Plant native vegetation and leave snags standing. Making natural food and shelter available will reduce the likelihood of unwanted human-raccoon interactions.

Raccoons are not pets! Raccoons do not make good pets. Like all wild animals, raccoons can carry diseases and parasites. When they reach sexual maturity, they can become territorial and aggressive. It is illegal in the State to take a raccoon out of the wild to be kept as a pet.

A “nuisance” raccoon

Raccoons are a fact of urban living. In many cases, tolerance and prevention (eliminating unnatural food sources, sealing up potential denning locations) is the best approach. If you do find yourself in conflict with your local raccoon population, the first thing to consider is identifying the source of the problem. What is attracting the raccoon to your property?

Raccoons are raiding my garbage cans!

Raccoons will take advantage of any available food source and are well-known garbage raiders. Garbage cans should be secured tightly to prevent a raccoon’s access. You can fasten the lid securely with rope, bungee cords or weights. Garbage cans can be secured to a wooden stake or wall to prevent being knocked over. Commercial repellants can also be sprayed directly onto garbage cans to deter raccoons.

Raccoon Roundworm


The raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) is the common large roundworm or ascarid found in the small intestinal tract of raccoons. Adult worms measure 15 to 20 cm in length and 1 cm in width. They are tan-white in color, cylindrical and taper at both ends.


B. procyonis has been reported from numerous states, but probably occurs wherever the raccoon inhabits. Prevalence of infections ranges from 3.4% to nearly 100% of all raccoons sampled


Transmission of B. procyonis can occur either directly or via an intermediate host. Naturally infected raccoons shed eggs (millions daily) in their feces and, under adequate temperature and moist conditions, a larvae will develop within an egg (embryonated) and can be infective (2nd stage larvae) in 11-14 days. Raccoons, especially young ones, become infected directly by accidental ingestion of these eggs. This may occur via the mother’s egg-contaminated body or from the local environment of the den (soil or vegetation). When an intermediate host is involved, embryonated eggs are ingested, the eggs hatch, and the larvae penetrate the intestines and migrate through the liver and lungs. The larvae then enter the pulmonary veins, pass into the left side of the heart and are distributed throughout the body especially the head, neck and/or thoracic areas. The larvae become encysted in small, firbous nodules in the affected tissue. If the intermediate host is eaten by a raccoon, the encysted larvae are released and migrate to the small intestine where they develop into the adult stage.


In raccoons usually there are no clinical or pathological signs observed. In heavy infections, intestinal obstructions or a rupture of the intestinal tract may occur, due to the large number of parasites present.

The animals usually seen with clinical and pathological signs caused by Baylisascaris are the intermediate hosts (mice, woodchucks, squirrels, rabbits, and birds). Migration of large numbers of larvae may cause liver and lung damage. Usually changes in behavior are seen due to central nervous system disorders. This is the result of damage caused to the brain and spinal cord by the larvae. Larvae may also cause eye disorders by migrating through the ocular tissues. If small numbers of larvae are involved in the migration, there may be no clinical signs observed.

How to Spot a Raccoon Infestation and What to Do About It

For many homeowners, the worst thing possible is having a rat or cockroach infestation. These pests can spread diseases, and they can find their way into homes using only the smallest holes. They leave droppings all over the home, and let’s face it: They’re disgusting to find face-to-face in your home.

So if you were to find that you actually have a raccoon infestation in your home as opposed to a rat infestation, you may think you’re better off for it, but that’s not quite true. Having a raccoon infestation can be quite serious, and as cute as they may be, raccoons can cause serious damage to your home. While it’s less likely, they can also carry diseases, and if your pet happens to find one, a racoon could harm your pet.

What to know about raccoons

Raccoons may look adorable with their mask-like faces and cute little paws, and when they’re outside, they’re fun to watch. It’s when they come into your home that it becomes a problem

Raccoons are nocturnal mammals that are known for eating just about anything. They’re omnivores, and in the wild, they’ll eat crawfish, frogs and anything else they can catch in a river as well as plants, fruits and eggs stolen from other nests. Around your neighborhood, you’ve likely seen raccoons poking around trash cans, trying to find their next meal from your scraps.

signs of a raccoon infestation

As mentioned, raccoons look to make their dens in warm places where they can last through the winter. They spend those cold months usually sleeping, so it can be difficult to know whether you’ve got a raccoon infestation until spring. As you’ll note from previous blogs, female wasps can lay dormant all winter in your attic and then wake up and start a colony in the spring. If you don’t go up to your attic frequently, then you might not notice an infestation before it’s too late.

How to Get Rid of Raccoons

Raccoons are cute to watch on TV, but they’re not so cute when they leave your trash strewn all over your backyard. The good news is that you can use humane techniques to get rid of raccoons around your house. Make your trash cans unattractive or impossible to enter. Remove or prevent access to any potential food sources from your yard. Finally, block any areas that would allow raccoons to enter your home.

Secure trash can lids. Use a rope, chain or bungee cord to tie the lid into a secure position. Alternatively, you could weigh down the lids with weights, bricks, or other heavy objects. Aim for about 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of weight to prevent the strongest adult raccoons from getting in.

Clean out your trash cans. Wash them out with the hose every week or so. Sprinkle the inside with baking soda to remove any lingering food odors. Tip them upside down so they don’t store water for mosquitoes or for raccoons to drink

Don’t put out the trash at night. Raccoons are active at night, and trash cans are among their favorite “hunting grounds.” To prevent them from breaking into your trash, store your cans in the garage or other indoor location. Take them out to the curb the morning of your scheduled pickup

Double bag food scraps. Raccoons have a very keen sense of smell that allow them to detect food sources from far away. Double bagging will help to contain food odors. This is especially helpful if you absolutely must keep your trash outside the night before the next garbage pickup

Spent $31 million to fend off a raccoon invasion. Here’s why cities can’t get rid of them.

Between the 1930s and 1980s, the US raccoon population increased twentyfold, and it’s still going strong. From 2014 to 2015, raccoon complaints in nearly doubled, so how are these masked bandits making it in big cities?

Well, for starters, they can digest just about anything from fish and acorns in the forest to dog food and pizza on the street, and just like humans, raccoons usually prefer the pizza, which is why they flock from city in the first place.

It’s just about impossible to stop them, as discovered after it spend millions on raccoon-proof waste bins. Unlike traditional bins, the lids had special gravity locks, which open when a garbage truck arm turns the bin upside down. The idea was that if you cut off their major food source, they would skip town, but that didn’t happen. In fact, one year later, a wildlife-control business reported that raccoon-related work had doubled.

Finally, a clever raccoon was caught on camera jailbreaking the new bin. How did she outwit an entire city? Well, study after study has revealed that raccoons are considerably smarter than your average medium-sized critter. Turns out raccoon brains have more neurons packed into their brains than other animals of the same size.

In fact, they have the same neuron density as primates, who are notoriously smart, and their clever brains help explain why raccoons can open complex locks, solve puzzles with ease, and even come up with solutions to problems that scientists didn’t think of. Add to that their ultrasensitive hands, er, paws, which have four times as many sensory receptors as their feet. This helps them to feel subtle textures like special trashcan lids and even open locks without looking.