Outdoor Electrical Lighting And The Things You Need To Know

A Buyer’s Guide to Outdoor Lighting

When designing your dream home, don’t forget to plan out the pathway to the front door. The outside layout is just as important – maybe more so – than the floorplan. More than simply the relaxing view waiting just out the kitchen window, the yard should be accessible and useful to match your household’s lifestyle. It also plays an important role in the safety of the home. The best way to get the most out of outside spaces is to light them up!

Intelligent outdoor lighting systems include the familiar path lighting, as well as the more invisible accent lighting or deck lighting. The lights themselves can be plain and simple in design, or they can be art pieces displayed and useful on the walls. You can plan an outdoor lighting system yourself, or leave it up to the professionals, but the most important part is that the lights enhance your experience of the tamed backyard landscape.

The Outdoor Lighting Advantage

So why is outdoor lighting such a great idea for your yard? There are many reasons, so let’s narrow it down to just the top five benefits of outdoor lighting.


Extra lights around a property line and near windows and entryways act as a deterrent to both animals and potential criminals. If there are no shadows to hide in, a home is less of a target. With enough illumination, security cameras can more easily record and provide warning of any problems or potential threats.


In addition to the extra safety of well-lit walkways and secure entryways, a properly designed lighting system creates visual interest and amplifies the curb appeal. The features of the landscape can be illuminated, calling attention to the details that would otherwise disappear, and making the yard, patio, or deck look maintained and orderly, day and night.

Open space:

With the right lighting, the family isn’t stuck indoors after the sun goes down. Enjoy your patio in the evenings, extend your indoor activities outside, and utilize every inch of your home’s open spaces.


Exterior lighting options have moved beyond noisy, buzzing halogen lamps as technology has advanced. Now, with solar lighting and LED bulbs, it’s easy to light up the landscape without leaving too big of an energy footprint.


Outdoor lighting is an easy home-improvement project. Simply plan out the features of your property that would benefit from a little extra night-time glow and purchase the lighting fixture that will best fit that space. You can tackle the entire yard all at once or opt to install one or two at a time — either way, your home is safer and more aesthetically appealing for the work that was done.

Plan Around Your Lifestyle

For a large yard, lighting can illuminate the spaces close to the home and accent the borders. For something a little smaller, deck lights and a string of bulbs can add welcoming character. Every lighting plan will be unique to the yard, and the people who live there are the people who know best how they want to use the space and where they want light. That means that the best person to plan your outdoor lighting is… you! And it’s not as complicated as you might think, just stick with a few simple steps.

Take a walk around your home and identify the areas that could use extra illumination. Write them down, or even sketch out a map. Keep in mind the different environments around every place a light might be needed. For instance, if the area is dry in the summer, or if it floods in the winter. The fixtures you choose will have to survive the elements, so know ahead of time what conditions they will be exposed to.

Determine what kind of light show you want to set up in each place. There are different lighting techniques to choose from, such as downlighting, accent lighting, grazing, or spotlights. Learn more about the different techniques and how to choose outdoor lighting.


This article is designed to be a comprehensive guide to selecting and looking after your outdoor lighting. With very little effort and some knowledge we can ensure that you make the correct purchase and that your lights will look good and give excellent service for many years. It should be read in conjunction with the advice at the bottom of our outdoor lighting category page.


All outdoor electrical installations in the UK must comply with the latest regulations and must be protected by an RCD. RCD stands for Residual Current Device and will protect you or your pets from an electrical shock should something go wrong. It works by shutting off the electrical supply very quickly should it detect an earth fault such as a person or animal touching a live feed

These regulations exist for your protection and safety and not just to make your life difficult. We would always recommend that you consult a qualified electrician prior to any outside electrical installation. This will enable you to make a more informed choice about the cost implications of positioning certain types of lights in your garden or outside area.


Every garden light we supply has to meet your specific requirements. It must represent excellent value for money, be of good quality and provide many years of service. Any fitting found not to meet these requirements is withdrawn from sale. Below is a list of the most common materials used in manufacture, together with their advantages and disadvantages

ABS Plastic

ABS stands for Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene. It is a plastic copolymer that has many advantages over other materials. It is cheap to buy, corrosion, impact and abrasion resistant and suitable for any situation including coastal locations. Coastal locations can be very aggressive due to the high salt levels in the air and the abrasive sand carried in the wind. It has the disadvantage that the colour may fade and it may become brittle after prolonged exposure to sunlight.

Painted Pressed Steel

Painted pressed steel fittings are relatively inexpensive to buy and can last for a considerable time if carefully looked after. They have the advantage that they can be finished in any colour. They are not suitable for coastal locations due to the high salt levels and abrasive sand particles suspended in the air. They will rust very quickly if the paint finish is damaged or uncared for.

Cast Aluminium

Cast aluminium lights are reasonably priced and will last a very long time if properly cared for. They are normally chromate treated before the final finish is applied. The fitting is treated with a layer of chromate gel prior to being finished. This layer offers excellent adhesion to the top layer and offers longer anti-corrosion properties. Although aluminium will not rust, if the protective paint and chromate layer are damaged, it will begin to oxidize almost immediately. This can be avoided and the lifetime of your outdoor light extended with a little preventative maintenance.

Stainless Steel

Stainless steel is a steel alloy that is made by adding chromium and a small amount of nickel, molybdenum or manganese to steel. For it to be classed as stainless it must contain at least 11% chromium. The most common grades of stainless steel will contain between 11% and 16% chromium and are the most likely grades to be used in mainstream stainless steel lights. Marine grade stainless steel is the most corrosion resistant and also one of the most expensive. It is important to remember that although stainless steel is very corrosion resistant, it will in fact stain if subjected to harsh environments. Stainless steel garden lights can vary hugely in price depending on the grade of stainless used in their manufacture. Higher-grade stainless lights are very well suited to coastal locations and will last a lifetime if properly looked after.


Brass lights are either cast brass or sheet brass. Cast brass fittings are considerably heavier than those made from sheet brass. Sheet brass garden lights are often handmade and attract a premium price due to the cost of brass and the labour involved. When used outdoors, we recommend that brass lights are not lacquered. Lacquer does not withstand long periods of sunlight and will eventually degrade and begin to peel. The only option is to remove the fitting and have it re-lacquered or have it removed. Un-lacquered brass outdoor lights will age and weather in time and look fantastic. They can be brought back to as new by using any proprietary fine metal polish. Brass garden lights will last a lifetime with minimal maintenance and are well suited to coastal locations.


Copper garden lights are almost always hand made, with a few exceptions. They are considerably more expensive to buy than most other types of lighting. They are usually made from sheet copper that has been joined together with the use of solder or rivets. Copper will not rust or deteriorate in any way and is perfectly suited to harsh environments. Again, we recommend that when used outdoors, copper should not be lacquered. Un-lacquered copper outdoor lights will age and weather in time and eventually will be covered in Verdi Gris. They can be brought back to as new by using any proprietary fine metal polish. Copper garden lights will last a lifetime with minimal maintenance and are well suited to coastal locations.

Garden and Outdoor Lighting

For mains voltage garden or outdoor lighting, you need to make sure you are staying within the building regulations. This applies to other outdoor electrical activities also such as putting a light or electric socket in the shed or supplying electricity to a pump in the fishpond.

Every cable, wire, socket, appliance and light used outdoors has to be protected by an RCD or residual current device which will instantly cut off the power should anything happen to make power leak to earth, for example if a cable gets cut or someone gets a shock.

More about RCDs can be seen in our project on Fuses but essentially they are safety devices which must be used to protect every socket which could be used to supply electricity outdoors. As this is usually almost every socket in the house it makes sense for an RCD to be placed in the fuse board or consumer unit. This type of RCD is shown in the image above.

Never let leads trail about in the garden. Obviously when using lawn mowers and hedge trimmers there will be cables but wherever possible lay the cables against the building or to the side of the garden. If you want to supply power to outside sheds etc the cables must be protected in certain ways.

Garden Electrics Regulations and Underground Cables

Part P of the building regulations now requires you to notify the Building Control Authorities if you intend to have electrical work done in the garden or it must be done by a Part P qualified electrician. There is no room here for DIY Electrics as it is simply too dangerous. To put cables underground in the garden the regulations state that the cable, preferably SWA or Steel Wired Armoured cable must be covered with a buried warning tape to alert anyone digging in the garden.

Outdoor Christmas Lighting Tips

Be Cautious When Installing Exterior Lighting

Use a good ladder when installing your lights. Secure them with insulated holders (never use tacks or nails). Don’t install your lights on trees that come in contact with power lines. Before installing your Christmas lights, plug them in to make sure all of your bulbs are working. Make sure to turn your lights off when you leave or go to bed at night.

Use the Proper Outlet

For starters, safety first! Your source of power should come from a ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) outlet. This type of outlet will shut the circuit down if there is overcurrent. We want your lights to shine, not sparks to fly! If you don’t have a GFCI outlet, a qualified electrician can permanently install one outdoors for holiday seasons to come. Or, you can buy a portable outdoor unit from your local home store for less than $20.

Keep Extension Cords Out of the Way

When using extension cords, make sure they are rated for outdoor use, and keep the connections above ground, snow and water. Try to avoid high-traffic areas. Tape cords across walkways, and use the correct length needed to travel to your lights. You don’t want your cords to be too long so they pile up and create walking hazards.

Always Choose Waterproof Lights

There is a variety of lights to choose from. First and foremost, always use waterproof or water-resistant lights with a tag marked underwriters lab (UL). This means the lights meet national industry standards with the American National Standards Institute. Also, when you’re buying Christmas lights to use outside, make sure they are rated for outdoor use (just like your extension cords). Never use indoor Christmas lights outdoors.

Using C7 or C9 Bulbs

For a more traditional holiday light, you will want to use a C7 or C9. These are the cone-shape lights you’ll find most often in home improvement and convenience stores. The difference in these lights is size and wattage, with C9 being a little bigger and easier to see from a distance. Both come in frosted or clear color bulbs and are great for illuminating both your house and trees.

Before and After — LED relight/retrofit

The below un-altered photographs of “Before” and “After” installations demonstrate LEDs superior characteristics of lighting. LED performance provides better visual acuity and better uniformity which is all achieved while using less energy! LED fixtures integrate the latest LED advancements and deliver optical performance that can perform as well as, and in most cases, better than traditional HID fixtures. Additionally, HID/LED comparison charts and sample project cost savings are provided to estimate savings or traditional lighting sources.

Lighting outdoor LED products to make the cars and trucks’ paint truly pop. Over one hundred 1000 watt metal halide fixtures at the tops of existing poles were replaced with 332 watt Forty-four 250 watt small metal halide floodlights located halfway down some of the front line inventory poles were swapped out with forty-four 70 watt

And a dozen 1000 watt metal halide floodlights on the exterior of the building were updated with fourteen 107 watt

TD Convention Center

The parking lot lighting at the TD Convention Center is a prime example for the future of LED lighting.The parking area was lit with 400w HPS fixtures mounted in double configuration at 28 feet. These fixtures were replaced with 90LED 210w fixtures on the existing poles. The results included energy-savings of 55% over HPS, improved overall uniformity and a safely illuminated parking area. Reference the HID/LED Comparison chart below for savings of LED systems compared to PSMH and HPS lighting systems.

Is Mold Inspection A Bigger Threat Today, Or Is It Just The Media

How Much Does Mold Removal & Remediation Cost?

The average cost of mold remediation is $2,325, with most homeowners spending between $1,500–$3,150 or $15 to $30 per square foot. A small mold removal job costs an average price of $500–$1,500 while a larger job costs around $3,000–$6,000. If the moldy area is 10 square feet or less, you can handle the job yourself for about $50.

In some cases, mold remediation costs can escalate to tens of thousands of dollars if the mold has spread and the problem is severe. Mold mitigation costs vary depending on how much and where mold exists. Broken down, mold removal professionals charge $75–$108 per hour.

Factors affecting the cost of mold abatement include how early the mold is detected and treated. If untreated for too long, additional costs mount because repairs of damaged drywall, lumber, subflooring, siding, and other potential areas might be warranted. The damage that needs to be addressed alongside the mold can increase costs by $5,000 and beyond.

Average Mold Remediation Cost Per Square Foot

Professional mold removal costs between $15 and $30 per square foot. The average cost for mold mitigation in a 100 square foot room will run $1,500–$3,150.

When mold growth becomes an issue in your home, you will need to consider three main categories of related expenses when looking at the final cost:

The cost of testing for and identifying the location and type of mold.

The cost of cleaning, remediation, and removing the mold, and of addressing the cause.

The cost of restoring affected materials if they were damaged or removed.

Mold Information for Home Tenants

The landlord or home owner must respond within seven days and has 30 days to repair the problem.   Mold contamination greater than 10 square feet requires a DOEE licensed mold professional to assess (evaluate) and/or remediate (fix) the problem.  Mold contamination below 10 square feet can be addressed by a non-licensed individual

The best way to prevent mold growth in your home is to control moisture indoors. However, where mold has already grown, it is important to take precautions to protect human health

Mold Assessment and Remediation Regulations specify requirements when addressing mold in indoor residential properties. These regulations establish a licensing program for mold assessment and remediation professionals who perform work

If there is at least ten square feet of indoor mold growth in a residential area with tenants, all assessment and remediation must be performed or supervised by a mold professional that is licensed by DOEE, and

No person may represent himself as a mold professional without the corresponding license from the DOEE,  and

All licensed mold professionals must notify DOEE of projects in accordance with the regulations, and follow performance standards and work practices required by the regulations.


If you are dealing with a mold problem in your home, EPA mold remediation is necessary in order to completely get rid of the mold spores that are present. The process of home mold remediation is intensive, and it is important that you follow specific cleanup procedures. Failing to follow the proper protocol is a problem, and you want to make sure that you and your family are safe from the health dangers that can occur as a result of mold.

Keep in mind that there are different protocols depending on the type of mold and where it is located in your home. Certain steps need to be taken for each type of building material, so it is a good idea to consult with a mold specialist before moving forward with the mold cleanup.

What is EPA Mold Remediation?

“EPA mold remediation” is the guidelines that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published in order to protect people from the dangers of mold exposure. Many people don’t realize how serious mold can be, and health problems can occur because they don’t follow a proper home mold remediation process.

Learning about the EPA’s guidelines for mold can help you to identify the supplies and techniques that are needed to effectively clean up the area and completely get rid of the mold. If you follow the steps as outlined, then the mold spores will be killed and you will be able to prevent future mold problems.

According to the EPA, you should not attempt a mold cleanup yourself if the mold covers more than 10 square feet, if the mold was caused by contaminated water, if the mold has gotten into the HVAC system, or if you have health issues that can be affected by additional exposure. You should hire a professional mold removal contractor.

Do-It-Yourself vs. Professional Cleanup

Even though you may want to clean up the mold on your own to save money, it is important to be aware of each necessary step so that you can understand the time and equipment that is needed to safely and completely remove the mold. Don’t make the mistake of cleaning up the area without the right equipment, because it will most likely result in the mold spores moving to other areas in your home. Mold will return in the future and continue to spread if it is not cleaned up correctly.

Guide for Professional Mold Remediation

procedural standard for the remediation of mold damaged structures and contents. The ANSI/IICRC S520 is based on reliable remediation and restoration principles, research and practical experience, and attempts to combine essential academic principles with practical elements of water damage restoration for technicians facing “real-life” mold remediation challenges. The S520 and R520 are written for use by those involved in the mold remediation industry, and is the result of collaboration among microbiologists and other scientists, public health professionals, industrial hygienists, remediation contractors, restoration service companies, cleaning and restoration training schools, trade associations that service the professional restoration industry, allied trade-persons and others with related professional and practical experience.

Guide is published as two separate documents: the standard itself and a supplementary reference guide. The procedural standard is supported by the reference guide. The intent is to use the principles outlined in the reference guide as a tool to better understand and apply the standard itself. However, the reference guide is not considered part of this standard.

The S520 Consensus Body Chair is Jim Pearson and Vice Chair is Scott Armour.

The S520 Consensus Body is currently working on revising the 2015 edition of the Standard. The revised Standard is expected to be available for public review by the end 2020.

What’s Missing With Mold Remediation Guidelines

Size matters more than you may think. Your ruler won’t help you understand.  You have to consider the limitations of what can be seen with a light microscope versus an electron microscope.   Consider a common occurrence after remediation.  People complain more after remediation that before remediation.  This was announced at an ACGIH symposium for mold remediation almost a decade ago.

described the contradictory data from a CDC NIOSH study at a hospital where pulmonary function was tested for hospital personnel and sampling of the moldy environment.  Remediation followed ACGIH recommendations in their book, Bioaerosols:  Assessment & Control.  Environmental test results were good but pulmonary test results were worse after remediation.  Their main environmental sampling was air samples for culturing and spore traps.

polymerase chain reaction or PCR was new to the industry.  Environmental Relative Moldiness Index or ERMI did not exist at the time either. ERMI is a statistical score applied to PCR testing from a common carpet cassette previously used for allergen testing. This is the only commercially available to test for small fragments of mold.  Other methods rely on whole spores or conidia while have extremely limited information for species level or ability to reproduce in culture for species identification.

Here we are a decade later and nothing has changed in the industry.  The industry still largely follows asbestos abatement techniques because it is human nature to resist change.  The industry still relies on the spore trap air sample as the test of choice to test for invisible mold or perform post remediation verification after mold remediation.  I have a case where 3 different firms have done mold remediation by the classic methods and the property owner is still having symptoms that lead to having mold remediation done. This is unacceptable.

Air samples are very questionable if pay attention to scientific literature.  Depending on the source (ACGIH, AIHA, Bob Brandys), you need to take anywhere from 3 to 9 samples per room for any statistical certainty since particles do not mix in the air like gasses and vapors.  You will easily spend more money on lab fees for the correct number of spore trap air samples than it costs for a single ERMI test.  The cost will explode if you want to use culturable air samples that can be identified to species level and take 2 weeks or more for analysis.

Are Your Accountant Practices Breaking the Law

Mistakes to Avoid When Choosing Accounting Software

The growth and success of a business depends on focusing on your core competencies while paying attention to the management of your accounts and overall finances and track of your income and expenses. Choosing the right accounting software could be the difference between easily managing your finances and manually keeping track of all expenses.

Following are some mistakes that businesses make when it comes to choosing an accounting software:

(Probably) Don’t Buy On-Premises

If you’re expecting your business to grow, you don’t want to purchase a system that’s reliant on your data center infrastructure. With cloud-based systems, you’ll wind up paying a small fee to increase your vendor’s infrastructure demands, but that’s nothing compared to what you’ll pay if you have to upgrade your own in-house ecosystem.

Increasing the scale of on-premises accounting software will require you to pay more in licensing and maintenance fees. You’ll also have to continually upgrade your hardware to more capable and expansive servers to handle the additional data requirements, and this means more energy costs, and more software to monitor your network performance. As I previously mentioned, cloud-based solutions will still require you to pay a bit more as your needs grow, but the costs won’t be nearly as dramatic as with an on-premises system. Now if you can afford to upgrade across the board, or just feel more comfortable housing your data in your own data center, ignore everything in this sub-section.

Don’t Ignore the Database

Regardless of whether you choose on- or off-premises software, you’re going to want to be mindful of the database you’re using to store all your information. If you opt for a single user or off-the-shelf system, you’ll likely rely on the vendor’s database to house all of your data. Some vendors limit the amount of data you can store on their systems, so you’ll have to switch software if your company dramatically expands.

Fortunately, most enterprise-class solutions can handle a variety of databases, so it’s important to determine whether or not the database and system can work well with one another to maximize your back-end performance. Microsoft’s SQL Server is a capable and standard choice many of you might already be using. MYSQL is another popular choice. Most accounting systems jibe with both databases pretty well. Work with your IT department and accounting team to determine which system is the best choice for syncing with your data, especially if your company uses a niche or unique database programming language.

Not Determining Needs

Most enterprises invest in accounting software without understanding the exact reason or your unique need for purchasing such a system. Finding the right software requires you to understand the reason for investing in an accounting system. Your prime reason for making such a purchase is to keep track of your finances. Are you simply looking to track the income and profit generated from sales? If you know what exactly you want to do with the software, you can compare the options and shortlist the right product.

Not Reviewing Processes

There are many important considerations to make before buying an accounting solution, ignoring which could result in problems later. Sometimes process improvement is required from an organizational perspective, while other times process change will result from utilizing improved functionality. Get the teams together to find how process improvements can be made.

Not involving the right people

When it comes to choosing an accounting software, not involving the right people could be a big mistake. Your accounting software generates information for the entire organization. Thus it is important to involve the right people in choosing the best software, rather than delegating the task to a single department. Participation across functional groups, such as system users, system managers, system customers, and representatives from information systems, will help you select the best possible financial software solution.

Not Reviewing the Challenges

Before choosing accounting software, it is important to review the challenges faced by the accounting department. A business owner needs to check whether the accounts team faces any inaccuracies in accounting. Businesses make a common mistake of choosing software without evaluating the challenges faced by their accounting teams. Before selecting accounting software, a business owner needs to consider many factors such as ease of use, components, functionality and multi-currency conversion to make the right decision.

Ignoring the Security Factors

Hackers always target small businesses. The reason is that small businesses provide easy access to large businesses with valuable data. Any business owner doesn’t want their organization to be the reason for a security hack as it may result in legal action, fines, and liability damages. If modern accounting systems implement accounting software correctly, protect data to avoid any such problems.

Infrequent Updates

How frequently is the accounting software updated? One of the great things about Quickbooks is the fact that it’s updated on a regular basis, with developers patching bugs while implementing new features. Accounting software that’s updated less frequently is more prone to bugs and errors, as well as security vulnerabilities. And given the fact that accounting software contains sensitive financial data like bank accounts and customer invoices, you’ll want to ensure it’s protected from such vulnerabilities.

Poor Customization

What kind of customization options does the accounting software offer? Quickbooks, for instance, allows its users to customize nearly every form, including invoices. So instead of sending a generic invoice, you can send customers and clients a fully customized invoice containing your company’s name, logo and other brandable elements.

Common Accounting Software Mistakes to Avoid

No company can afford to operate without the right accounting software. When considering whether to buy a new product or upgrade their current solutions, however, business owners often fall prey to some common mistakes. Here are five gaffes to avoid:

1. Relying on a generic solution. Some companies rush into buying an accounting system without stopping to consider all their options. Perhaps most important, they may be missing out on specific versions for their industries.

For instance, construction companies can choose from many applications with built-in features specific to how their businesses work. Nonprofit organizations also have industry-specific accounting software. If you haven’t already, check into whether a product addresses your company’s area of focus.

2. Spending too much or too little. When buying or upgrading something as important as an accounting system, it’s easy to overspend. Those bells and whistles can be enticing. Then again, frugal-minded business owners may underspend, picking up a low-end product and letting staff deal with the headaches.

The ideal approach generally lies somewhere in the middle. Perform a thorough review of your accounting needs, transaction volume and required reports, as well as your employees’ proficiency and the availability of tech support. Then calculate a reasonable budgeted amount to spend.

3. Getting stuck in a rut. Assuming you already have an accounting system, one of the keys to managing it is knowing precisely when to upgrade. You don’t want to spend money unnecessarily, but you also shouldn’t risk errors or outdated functionality by waiting too long.

There’s no one-size-fits-all answer. Your financial statements are a potentially helpful source of information. A general rule of thumb says that, when revenues hit certain benchmarks (perhaps $5 million, $10 million or $15 million), a business may want to start thinking “upgrade.” The right tipping point depends on various factors, however.

4. Neglecting the importance of integration and mobile access. Once upon a time, a company’s accounting software was a standalone application, and data from across the company had to be manually entered into the system. But integration is the name of the game these days. You should be able to integrate your accounting system with all (or most) of your other software so that data can be shared seamlessly and securely.

Also consider the availability and functionality of mobile access to your accounting system. Many solutions now include apps that users can use on their smartphones or tablets.

5. Going it alone. Which accounting package you choose may seem an entirely internal decision. After all, you and your staff will be the ones using it, right? But you may be forgetting one rather obvious person who could help: your accountant.

We can help you assess and determine your accounting needs, set a feasible budget, choose the right solution (or upgrade) and implement it properly. Going forward, we can even periodically test your system to ensure it’s providing accurate data and generating the proper reports.

Accredited Training In Pediatric Massage

What is a Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeon?

If your child has musculoskeletal (bone) problems, a pediatric orthopedic surgeon has the experience and qualifications to treat your child.

What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeons Have?

Pediatric orthopedic surgeons are medical doctors who have

  • Graduated from an approved medical school
  • Graduated from an approved orthopedic surgery residency program
  • Completed additional subspecialty training in pediatric orthopedics

Pediatric orthopedic surgeons treat children from the newborn stage through the teenage years. They choose to make pediatric care the core of their medical practice, and the unique nature of medical and surgical care of children is learned from advanced training and experience in practice.

What Types of Treatments Do Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeons Provide?

Pediatric orthopedic surgeons diagnose, treat, and manage children’s musculoskeletal problems including the following:

  • Limb and spine deformities (such as club foot, scoliosis)
  • Gait abnormalities (limping)
  • Bone and joint infections
  • Broken bones

Why do I need a pediatric orthopedic specialist?

Children are not just small adults. Your growing bones are living tissues that change continuously and pose different challenges than those of adults. Adopting healthy nutritional and lifestyle habits are important choices to build healthy bones and prevent osteoporosis and fragility fractures later in life. The healthy habits that you adopt during your childhood and adolescence can literally make your bones stronger as you age. Some common pediatric problems don’t occur in adults, and what looks like a problem in a child may be just a variation that you will outgrow over time.

Nevertheless, some other bone disorders need an accurate orthopedic specialist’s evaluation and may require bracing or surgical intervention. Some bone disorders can be inherited, or caused by injuries, infections, poor blood supply or tumors. They can cause painless bone deformities and affect your ability to walk and use the limb.

Treatments depend on the disorder but often surgery may help, as it can put back in the right place your displaced bones before the cast, the splint or brace is put on. The orthopedic surgical procedure is called reduction which means “setting the bone”.

Pediatric orthopedic surgeons, their supporting staff and their offices are all well equipped to deal with you and your family, in order to share the problem, decide the best treatment strategy and offer you a comfortable, patient-focused and family-friendly environment.

Pediatric orthopedic specialists provide kid-focused care

When it comes to your kids and teens getting the care they need, you want care that’s kid-focused from beginning to end. When you choose a pediatric orthopedic specialist, you’re choosing someone who understands and treats kids’ unique needs—both physical and emotional. That means things like kid-sized and kid-friendly casts, braces, waiting areas, rooms and communication.

Pain, tests and treatment affect growing kids differently than adults. Young kids haven’t developed the skills to understand why they can’t move during an MRI. And although kids’ fractures heal faster than adults’, it can be hard for a child to understand why they have to take it easy after an injury. That’s why we provide kid-focused care, including

Imaging that uses up to 50 percent lower doses of radiation than some adult providers

Innovative therapies that allow us to avoid overuse of prescription pain medications

Care for spinal conditions that goes beyond diagnosis to include more treatment options that grow with your child

Therapies and techniques that reduce the need for spine surgery

Three 24/7 Emergency Departments and several Urgent Care Centers for quick diagnosis and treatment

Child life specialists who explain procedures and treatment so kids understand

Pediatric Orthopedics versus Adult Orthopedics

Children are NOT simply little adults.

What separates pediatric orthopedics from adult orthopedics? Adults need hip replacements and children get fractures on the playground, right? Well, there is a little more to the difference between the two in the world of orthopedics. Even with the similar injuries adult and children’s bodies often have a different response. Pediatric orthopedic surgeons are specifically trained to evaluate and treat children.

Children’s Bone Anatomy

First of all, children’s bones are substantially different than adults. Infants start off with a skeleton made of cartilage that matures into calcified bone during the early years of development. In fact, during the first few weeks of life, ultrasounds are frequently used to examine children’s bones instead of x-rays. As children grow and develop, their bones have a softer structure than adults. The softer characteristic allows their bones to fracture or break in different ways than adult bones do. The biggest difference is the presence of growth plates in children’s bones. This greatly changes the ways doctors treat and care for injuries as well as bone and joint disorders in children.

Growth Plates

Children’s growth plates are the center for bone growth. Growth plates consist of developing cartilage tissue near the end of long bones. Bones grow from the ends where the growth plates are located. Fractures can occur within and near the growth plates. These require different types of treatment compared to similar injuries in adults to avoid later problems with growth. At times the growth of a bone near a fracture can even assist in the bone healing and correcting the fracture which adds to differences in treating kids versus adults. A pediatric orthopedic surgeon is specifically trained to care for and understand these differences which results in better care and outcomes for the patients.

Children’s Injuries

Because children’s bones are different from adult bones, fractures need to be treated differently. For instance, children’s bones heal quicker than adults. This means that children need to be evaluated by a pediatric orthopedic surgeon promptly to ensure that the fracture does not need to be manipulated. If a child’s fracture heals improperly a surgery may be needed to correct it. Also, children’s fractures do not typically need to be casted as long as adults due to the faster healing potential. Not only are fractures different in pediatrics, but also in sports injuries. For example, ACL tears in pediatrics require special surgical techniques that are completely different from adult ACL surgeries.

Syndromes, Deformities, and Gait Abnormalities

Pediatric orthopedic surgeons often evaluate and treat children with special needs, deformities, and developmental delays. This includes all portions of the musculoskeletal system (bones, joints, muscles) from the neck down the spine, arms, hands, legs and feet. Since children cannot always verbalize what is wrong, pediatric orthopedic surgeons know how to examine and treat children while keeping them calm and cooperative. These can be fairly complex and often make up a large portion of a pediatric orthopedics’ practice.

What Treatments and Procedures Does a Pediatric Orthopedist Do?

  • Casts, splints, and braces. Orthopedic doctors use casts to protect a bone while it heals or change the way the bone is growing. A cast can be made of plaster or fiberglass, and it keeps a bone from moving. A splint is like a partial cast that doesn’t cover the arm, leg, or other body part completely. A brace is used to restrict movement in a joint. Casts, splints, and braces are used for conditions such as broken bones, sprains, clubfoot, and scoliosis.
  • Assistive devices. Orthopedic doctors help children use walkers, wheelchairs, crutches, or special shoes when they need help with moving because of a problem with their bones, muscles, or joints.
  • Surgery. Orthopedic surgeons may use surgery to remove tumors orcysts, set broken bones, or correct bone deformities.

Pediatric orthopedists often work with other doctors and therapists, including physical therapists. Physical therapy is often an important part of recovery from any injury or surgery that involves the bones and muscles. It is also an important way to train children to strengthen their bodies and use them correctly to prevent future injury or correct walking problems.

Top Uses Of Move In Cleaning Equipment

What can your landlord deduct from your deposit?

What your deposit could be kept for

The deposit is your money. Your landlord should provide evidence of their costs if they decide to make deductions.

Reasonable deductions could include:

unpaid rent

damage to the property

Your landlord shouldn’t deduct money from your deposit if you breached terms of your tenancy agreement, but this didn’t cost them money. For example, they shouldn’t deduct money just because you smoked or kept a pet in the property if this didn’t cost them any extra money.

Cleaning costs

Cleaning is the most common reason for deductions from deposits. You only need to clean the property to the same standard as it was when you moved in. You can do this yourself or use a professional cleaning company.


Your landlord may use your deposit to cover damage you caused in the property. They should only charge you a reasonable amount on a ‘like for like’ basis. For example, if you caused damage to a cheap old bed you shouldn’t be asked to pay for the cost of a high quality or brand new replacement.

How much should you be charged for damage?

Don’t agree to deductions if you think they’re unreasonable. Your landlord should have evidence to prove their costs. They should consider how much damage there is and the age and condition of the item before it was damaged.

How to get your security deposit back

That wasn’t the only clue. A typed addendum to the original lease included an over-the-top list of rules, including requirements to rinse dirty dishes, run the bathroom fan for 30 minutes after every shower, and never wear shoes indoors. Houseplants needed two drip trays each, plus a cork mat. Spilled liquids should be wiped up immediately. The couple carefully followed the rules and cleaned everything listed in their lease.

After they moved out, they were surprised to receive a typed, three-page letter that described in narrative detail what wasn’t clean. It’s not uncommon for renters and landlords to dispute the level of cleanliness after moving out. After all, there are many ways to interpret “clean” and normal wear-and-tear, but this letter seemed extraordinary.

The stove needed three hours of cleaning, the landlord wrote, which involved two doses of oven cleaner. “I started calling it ‘The Beast,’” she said. She said she found nuts and seeds in the dishwasher filter tray, and there was lint on the bathroom fan cover. Not to mention the dryer duct held bobby pins, a guitar pick, and two one-dollar bills.

The letter ended with a proclamation: she and her husband spent 16.5 hours cleaning the apartment after they’d had professional cleaners clean the place, plus they spent 14 hours cleaning the storm windows (a process she described as “grueling”). She said she needed $587.50 to cover her time, a calculation that probably wouldn’t hold up in court, because landlords can’t typically charge for their time. At that point, Joe says, he wasn’t expecting to get his full security deposit back, even though he was sure he’d met her requirements.

“We lived in the apartment for five years,” he says, “and she was trying to charge us for normal wear and tear. She said things should be better in better condition than when we moved in, but she was talking about things that get used every day.”

How to Organize Your Move

A binder specifically designated for your move will save you time, energy and possibly money. Create your binder at least two months before your move, and organize it into the following categories:

Checklists – Find an online printable that you can use as a guide to know what needs to be done before, during and after your move.

Utilities – Use this section to keep track of utility contracts, paperwork and more. List contact information and appointments, and make appointments well in advance.

Loan Documents – For easy access and reference, you can keep your loan documents in this section until after the move. After the move, file them in your home office.

Receipts – This section is for any purchases that will be made in reference to the move or your house. For example, keep any receipts for any fixture purchases like a faucet. If something doesn’t fit, or you need to return or exchange it for any reason, you can look here for the receipt.

Movers – Keep your moving company or truck rental contract and contact numbers in this section.

Builder – Place any contact numbers for your builder, warranties and paperwork in this section during your move.

Inventory List – Search online for “moving inventor list,”  print one out and fill it out.

Schedules – This section is for appointments, moving company schedules and more. It will be easier to create a Word document calendar, print it out and place it in the binder. You can document your house closing appointment, walk-through, mover’s schedule, utility hookup times and any other important information.

Create a moving legend using circular sticker labels to represent designated areas in the house where each moving box will go. Use color-coded card-stock sheets to match the circle labels, and hang them on each doorway. This will show the movers where the boxes go, and will help alleviate any confusion as to where to put the boxes, saving you a lot of unpacking time.

Once you create a moving legend, photocopy a few sheets and place them throughout the house and on the front, back and garage doors. Purchase self-adhesive moving labels, and write down the contents of each box. Place a colored sticker on the label and top of the box, so you can see which room it goes in as you carry it.

Pack your belongings in like-sized boxes you can purchase online or at home improvement stores, and avoid packing loose items in the moving truck to save room and time. When packing, you may move from room to room, take a day off or get sidetracked. By storing packing tools together in one basket, you will be more efficient with your time, as well as save yourself from searching for lost packing tools. Add all necessary packing items to the basket, such as labels, tape, markers and scissors. When you move from room to room, just grab the basket and go.


By now, you’ve probably realized that you can’t grow your business on referrals alone. This is why you need cleaning marketing. Trying to grow your cleaning business on referrals alone is like wishing for the rain to wash your dirty car. Only it’s sunny outside. Also, you live in the desert.

We’ll go over things like:

Cleaning Marketing Basics

Digital And Print Marketing Strategies

How To Sell Your Cleaning Services Better

How To Consistently Win More Cleaning Clients

Above all other strategies, keep doing an awesome job!

When you commit 100% to quality, your clients…

Feel Like They’re Getting Full Value

Are More Inclined To Refer You To Others

Will Keep Asking You To Come Back, Again And Again!

How to Ask for Cleaning Referrals (the Right Way)

Word of mouth is one of the best ways to get great, long-term clients. Referrals work, because they can shortcut you past new clients’ “trust barrier.” But it can be hard – and even a little scary – to ask for referrals.

Here are some quick tricks to make you requests more successful:

1. Target the right cleaning clients.

Of Your Best Clients, Who Is The Most Ideal?

Who Is The Most Loyal To You?

Who Has Been Your Client For The Longest Time, And Is Interested In Buying More Of Your Services?

2. Choose the right time to ask.

The Best Time To Ask For Referrals (Similar To Asking For Online Reviews) Is When Your Client Is Most Excited About You.

Right After You Do The Best Job You’ve Ever Done For Them, Give It 110% Next Time You Service A Client, And Try Asking For A Referral.

3. Offer an Incentive

Give A Referral Offer To Your Clients. It Can Be A $15 Gift Card Or $15 Off Their Next Service For Every Successful Referral. When You’re Ready To Give Your Clients A Referral Offer, You Can Hand Them Your Magnetic Cleaning Business Card And Watch The Referrals Flow In.

The Ultimate Guide to Apartment Spring Cleaning

You may be that person that absolutely loves to clean, or you may dread just the thought of cleaning your apartment for rent. Well, we are here to help guide you on some useful spring cleaning tips to ensure you don’t freak out and remain calm!


Organize cabinets and drawers – throw away items you never use that serve no purpose.

Clean and scrub down sinks and countertops – make your bathroom look as good as new.

Shine faucets – eliminate hard water spots.

Scrub down the shower and bathtub – eliminate stains.

Wash shower curtain – don’t want mold stains to show. Yuck.

Clean the toilet – yes, it is a must. You don’t want to be that person who is embarrassed to have your guests use your dirty toilet with dark stains.


Clean inside the oven, microwave, refrigerator, freezer and stovetop

Thoroughly sanitize and disinfect the sink

Scrub down floors if you have tile

Check underneath the refrigerator for crumbs, dirt, bugs etc. and then throw away!


Organize clothes in closet and drawers – make separate bins for keeps, giveaways and trash. It feels good to get rid of things you don’t want anymore!

Wash all bedding with pillow cases- if you never clean your linens, this would be a good time to get proactive and just do it.

If you have kids, clean and sanitize all toys. Who knows what your kids could be touching.

Mattress rotating works wonders – yes, this will prevent unnecessary sagging in the areas you most sleep on. It truly works.


Wipe down television screen entirely, but be careful

Vacuum and dust mop furniture (read these shark vacuum reviews before purchasing what you might think would be a good one. Alternatively, you can also visit this link to see other good vacuum cleaners.)

Clean windows and windowsills

Dust all edges for cobwebs

Vacuum and dust floor and rugs

Throw away all unused magazines and clutter

Make sure all lights are working

Keeping Squirrel Away From Bird Feeders

How to Get Rid of Squirrels

The first step to getting rid of the squirrels in your attic is to determine how they are coming and going. Once you know how they have got it in, you can begin the removal and repair process. During the birthing season, this begins with a complete search of your attic for babies. It is important to remember that baby squirrels do not exit the den site until eight weeks of age. That means the only way they can be removed is by hand.

Locating baby squirrels can be tricky. To protect them from predators, their mother will have been sure to tuck the babies away in a hard reach place. This will require wading through itchy fibreglass in the dark to locate their exact position.


Attics are extremely dusty, so you should always wear a dust mask before entering any attic.

Heat stress. Attics temperatures during spring and summer can soar to over 45 degrees Celsius. Make sure to hydrate well and take frequent breaks.

Watch your step. Make sure your weight is always on a floor joist. Stepping off of the joists could cause you to fall through the ceiling.

Most attics have no lights, so you will need a flashlight to guide you.

The search should begin in the areas where the most activity has been heard as they are where the babies are most likely to be stashed. Mother squirrels can be extremely aggressive, especially when it comes to their babies. They may charge or attack if they feel threatened.

Skedaddle wildlife technicians are trained to scare mother squirrels out from the attic as we collect the babies. If the mother retreats to another part of the attic or refuses to vacate, we will use her babies to lure her from the attic. Mother squirrels have a strong maternal instinct and by placing the litter in a heated baby box on the outside we can be sure to attract the mother out of the attic.

How to Get Rid of Squirrels

How can you get rid of squirrels in your yard and home? Your best bet is to exclude, rather than eliminate, them. You can also try repellents, habitat modification, trapping, or a mix of all four.

But first, let’s talk about why you’d want to get rid of these bushy-tailed creatures in the first place. They seem harmless enough, scurrying about outside feasting on fallen acorns or sprawling across tree limbs to reach buds and seeds.

Problems arise, though, when these squirrels invite themselves to partake in the spoils of your garden (or your bird feeder), dig up your lawn in search of nuts (or to bury food for later), or nest in your attic or crawlspace.

Types of Squirrels

Native to every continent except Australia and Antarctica, squirrels belong to the rodent family and are closely related to chipmunks, prairie dogs, and marmots. There are more than 200 species of squirrels that live all over the world, and they’re classified into three main groups: tree squirrels, flying squirrels, and ground squirrels.

Various types include Eastern and Western gray squirrels, black squirrels, fox squirrels, red squirrels, and Northern and Southern flying squirrels. Ranging in size from about 7 inches to 27 inches, depending on the species, squirrels do not pose much of a direct threat to humans. If they feel threatened, however, they could bite and potentially spread a host of diseases.


Are there small, shallow holes dug in your garden beds? Do you find fruits and vegetables that are half eaten? Have your freshly planted bulbs been dug up? If you answered yes to any (or all) of these, it’s probably squirrel damage. Their rummaging is in full swing in fall when they’re prepping for winter. They’ll be back in spring, making the most of new growth and ripening fruit when nuts and seeds are limited.

While many of us enjoy watching squirrels, they can be a serious garden problem, causing extensive damage and terrorizing bird feeders. If you are looking for ways to keep them out of your garden

Hide or relocate their food. Be diligent about cleaning up fallen nuts, acorns and berries. Make the process faster and easier with a handy nut gatherer. These food sources can be relocated to an area where squirrels are welcome, such as a back corner of your yard (see #7 below). Also, keep trash can lids securely closed as well.

Get a dog. Most dogs love to chase squirrels. Put them on squirrel patrol and let them scare the squirrels away.

Turn up their noses. Squirrels are offended by many of the same scents as deer, so repellents like Plantskydd Deer Repellent work well. You can also try a thin layer of coffee grounds or tucking a small amount of dog hair around and under plants.

Surprise them. Startle and shoo them away with a sudden spray of water from a motion-activated sprinkler or blast of air from an motion-activated air can.

Employ natural predators. Use a squirrel’s natural predators to your advantage by attracting hawks or owls by placing raptor perches or owl nests nearby. However, this approach is not recommended if you have small animals in the yard that you’d like to keep there.

Create a barrier. Use bird netting on bushes with fruit or berries, shield ground crops with row covers, create an enclosure with chicken wire or even build a greenhouse to protect tempting treats from squirrels. Any fencing should be placed up to a foot into the ground to keep squirrels from digging under.

Use companion plants. Discourage squirrels by surrounding or inter-planting with varieties that they turn their noses up to, like mint, marigolds, nasturtiums, or mustard. You can also try crown imperial bulbs (Fritillaria), but it is recommended that you plant these far away from inhabited areas such as patios or porches because of their strong skunk-like smell.

Cover the ground. Squirrels don’t particularly like the feel of mulch (especially gravel) under their feet, so add it to garden beds. When used over newly planted bulbs, it can also help disguise the scent of the fresh bulbs. You might also try laying down aluminum foil.

Give them their own food. Although a disputed method, as this may end up attracting more, giving in to the little guys might just be an option. If you’ve got a large area, make them their own feeding ground that is well away from your garden beds. Use a squirrel feeder to feed them their own sunflower seeds, peanuts, and feed corn. Some gardeners go so far as to plant extra tomatoes to keep them satisfied and away from theirs. You may want to include some of the other squirrel deterrent methods above around bird feeders and garden beds, just in case.

Give them a drink. If squirrels are munching on your tomatoes or other juicy fruits or vegetables, they may just be thirsty. author of The Guide to Humane Critter Control, says, “During the growing season, provide the squirrels with a dish of fresh water…and the squirrels will probably leave those tomatoes for you to harvest.”


Yes, applying a mixture of cayenne or other chili peppers either in a spray or sprinkling around plants can deter squirrels. But, if it gets on their paws and they touch their eyes it can cause pain and even temporary blindness, so we recommend less harmful methods.


Signs that you have an infestation

Droppings – Often found in loft spaces. Squirrel droppings are larger and more rounded than a rats.

Sounds – Squirrels who nest inside buildings are usually noisy.

Sighting – They go outside their nest on a frequent basis to feed so you may see a squirrel entering or leaving an opening on your roof.

Damage – You may also notice gnaw damage

Problems caused by squirrels

Noise – grey squirrels occupying a loft space make can make a lot of noise. They will continuously run around the loft space in search for nesting materials.

Damage – squirrels are very strong, have sharp teeth and sharp claws. They can even chew through soft metals and hard wood and many other materials used in lofts and on roofing. Fascia boards, tiles, insulation materials and joists are often damaged by squirrel activity.


Squirrels are particularly stubborn when it comes to their dwellings and will be difficult to get rid of without professional help. Our treatment involves up to 3 visits over a 4 week period

The Homeowner’s Guide To Dealing With Squirrel Infestation

Squirrels may be cute, but no homeowner wants to share their house with them. Squirrels are one of the most common pests found in homes throughout the United States and they can put your property and your family at risk. Getting rid of squirrels is enough to make someone go nuts, but we have compiled a guide to help you stay sane when dealing with your current squirrel infestation.

Here are a few ways to remove squirrels from your home:

Traps and Cages

Frightening Devices

Chemical treatment

Dealing with squirrels in your home can be a time-intensive and expensive investment. Fortunately, there are a variety of ways one can go about dealing with a squirrel problem depending on your situation. Seeking assistance from a pest control professional shoud be the first thing you do.

Traps and Cages

You may be tempted to catch the squirrel with a pair of gloves, but we recommend using a type of cage or trap. It is also possible that trapping a squirrel in your state without a professional license is illegal.

There a number of different types of traps on the market, some of which work well for squirrels and some that don’t:

1) Body Grip Traps

Many wildlife removal experts DO NOT recommend using a body grip trap. Body grip traps are meant to be lethal and can leave you with a smelly carcass.

2) One-Way Door Cages

The one-way door cage goes at the site where a squirrel is gaining entrance into the home. The one-way door cage lets the squirrel exit the home without being able to re-enter. While this can help remove squirrels from your home, it’s not a long term solution as squirrels can usually chew new entrances into your home.

3) Live Bait Traps

A trap with bait is a humane alternative to body grip traps and is more effective than one-way door cages.These traps capture the squirrel without causing it harm, so that you can then let it go in the wild far away from your property. Instead of buying special squirrel bait, you can save money and use sunflower seeds, peanuts, or peanut butter from your local grocery store. This can be the most practical option to solve a squirrel infestation.

Frightening Devices

There are a few other options that you may consider when faced with a squirrel infestation. Frightening devices such as, strobe lights, radio noise, or ultrasonic sound producers may discourage squirrels in attics or other confined spaces. These techniques are rarely effective because the squirrels get used to the devices or may ignore the device if they have young to care for.

Jacked Up Truck Tires Aren’t Meant To Be Practical

How Do Semi-Truck Tire Problems Cause Car Accidents?

Semi-trucks, tractor-trailers, tankers, and other large vehicles are designed to take heavy punishment from frequent use, but they require constant maintenance to stay in operating condition. An issue with even a single tire can pose a real danger both to the truck and to other cars on the road, so it’s important that the operator of the truck follows all the rules, regulations, and good practices that the transportation industry has in place in order to drive safely and prevent accidents.

How Commercial Truck Tires Fail

The tires of an 18-wheeler must be able to support up to 80,000 pounds or more of weight, be able to withstand the forces to move that weight, and still be able to bring the entire vehicle to a stop safely, too. When a tire capable of meeting these requirements fails, it often blows out at highway speed by either exploding or rupturing, shredding the tire and leaving pieces of rubber across the road. These tire fragments can strike nearby cars and cause them to lose control, or cause drivers to veer suddenly to avoid striking pieces of tread, causing an accident.

There are many causes of truck tire blowouts, and most of them are preventable. For example, blowouts may be caused by:

  • Improper maintenance. Tires need to be inflated to the correct pressure, meet minimum tread depth standards, and have a similar amount of wear. If a truck driver or trucking company doesn’t inspect and replace worn tires regularly, the tire can fail under even a light load.
  • Bad loading practices. Trailers and cargo must be balanced properly front to back and left to right and not go over the maximum safe load capacity of the tires.
  • Defective products. Like many other products, sometimes defective materials are released onto the market. It’s up to the trucking company or driver to stay current with all safety notices and stop using any tire that is under a recall.

There are both state and federal laws that dictate how often maintenance inspections, including tires, must be performed on trucks. Failure to perform these inspections or to document them appropriately may expose the truck driver, the trucking company, or the cargo owner to liability for any damage to other vehicles on the road.

What Are the Most Common Causes of 18-Wheeler Accidents?

A fully loaded 18-wheeler can weigh as much as 80,000 pounds. In comparison, the average passenger car weighs around 3,000 pounds. Therefore, when a collision between the two occurs, the results are typically catastrophic. Passenger vehicle occupants often sustain serious and life-threatening injuries, completely altering the course of their lives.

Despite increased awareness and improved safety regulations, trucking accidents are on the rise. Understanding the causes of trucking accidents can hopefully prevent them from occurring in the future. It could also help you win your injury case if another driver is responsible for your trucking accident.

Here is a list of the most common causes of 18-wheeler accidents in Dallas and across the state of Texas.

Fatigued Truck Drivers

Truck driver fatigue is a serious issue that often leads to fatal accidents. Federal regulations limit the number of hours a truck driver can spend on the road. If a truck driver works long hours and fails to get sufficient sleep, then he or she is capable of making catastrophic mistakes behind the wheel.

Distracted Driving

Everyone knows that talking, texting and surfing the web are dangerous when driving a car. However, when driving a fully-loaded 18-wheeler, distracted driving can be especially hazardous. Truck drivers have a responsibility to keep their eyes, hands and mind on the task of driving at all times.

Reckless Driving

Truck drivers are often paid based on the quickness of their deliveries. To improve their delivery times, some truck drivers engage in risky and reckless driving, including speeding, changing lanes too often, following other cars too closely or driving erratically in poor weather conditions.

Driving While Impaired

It is illegal for anyone to drive under the influence of drugs or alcohol, and truck drivers are no exception. Unfortunately, many truck drivers abuse over-the-counter drugs, prescription medications and/or alcohol when driving. Truck drivers who drive impaired are significantly more likely to cause serious and catastrophic accidents.

Trucking Company Negligence

Trucking companies have a responsibility to keep their trucks properly maintained. When they fail to do so, a truck or trucking component could breakdown and cause an accident. Worn tires, faulty brakes and improperly serviced vehicles cause numerous 18-wheeler accidents each year.

Poor Weather Conditions

Driving an 18-wheeler is more difficult than driving your standard automobile. However, snow, ice, sleet and rain make driving an 18-wheeler even more difficult. Poor weather can reduce visibility, making it harder for large semi-trucks to make sudden stops. Heavy winds can even cause a truck to jackknife on the road. Truck drivers have a responsibility to lower their speed and drive cautiously when poor weather strikes.

Improperly Loaded Cargo

Shipping companies must safely secure cargo when loading them into a large commercial truck. If they fail to do so, then the contents inside the truck could shift, forcing the truck driver to lose control.

What Are the Two Main Reasons That Tire Blowouts Happen?

It is important to understand what a truck tire blowout is because it is different than a flat tire. Tire blowouts are the sudden bursting or rupturing of a truck tire—often happening when the truck is being driven at a high speed. As a result of the sudden explosion, the trucker can lose control of his truck and crash into other nearby vehicles, sometimes in other lanes. In addition, accidents can occur when truck cargo becomes loose or shredded parts of the tire’s rubber are strewn onto the roadway into the path of unsuspecting motorists who must try to swerve out of the way. In some cases, the truck driver can totally lose control of his truck and cause a rollover accident.

Unfortunately, many of these accidents are caused by two factors: failure to inspect the tires regularly and failing to maintain and replace them when necessary. Not only is this negligence, but it is also a violation of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) rules governing truckers’ and trucking companies’ duties to inspect and maintain their trucks. These rules require the following:

  • Truckers and trucking companies must systematically inspect and maintain their trucks—including the tires—on a schedule specified in the FMCSA rules.
  • Truckers and trucking companies are required to not allow a truck to be driven if it is in a condition that will likely result in it causing an accident or breaking down.
  • Truckers must conduct a pre-trip inspection of the truck that includes reviewing the last truck driver’s report and certify that any needed repairs have been made. If the truck tires are too worn or defective, the truck should not be taken on the road.
  • Truckers should also conduct a post-trip inspection and prepare a report that lists any needed repairs.
  • While on the road, truckers are supposed to inspect their trucks and tires at the end of each day. If the tires are in a condition that is likely to cause a crash or truck breakdown, the trucker should not continue to drive the truck.
  • Trucking companies are also required to maintain, repair, and replace truck tires when their condition requires it

What Factors Trigger Tire Blowouts?

A number of conditions will cause a worn or defective tire to be under sudden pressure or an impact that causes it to explode or lose air pressure quickly, with a truck tire blowout being the result. Some of these factors include:

  • Potholes
  • Underinflating of the tires
  • Heat, which can cause the tires to overinflate
  • Overloading of the cargo
  • Wear and tear of the tire, which can result in a blowout if the tire is not replaced
  • Low or no tire tread
  • Mismatched tires and tires that are not the proper size for the truck

The Difference Between P-Metric Tires and LT Tires

A “P” listed in front of the tire size indicates that it is “P-metric” size. P-metric stands for passenger vehicle. Passenger vehicles are cars (for example sedans and coupes), minivans, or CUVs, but can also be trucks that do not carry extra heavy loads or run on gravel roads. If there is no letter in front of the size, then the tire is for passenger cars, and closely equivalent to p-metric. These tires have an internal construction and use materials designed to give a smooth ride, good handling on the highway, and to last a long time.

LT Tires have “LT” in front of the size. They are for heavy loads, towing and off-road durability. They are more expensive than p-metric tires. This is because LT tires have extra material in the sidewall and under the tread that protects the tire from damage. The cords in a LT tire are a larger gauge than P-metric tires so the tire can carry heavier loads. Very often LT tires will have an extra steel belt, a deeper tread and thicker rubber in the sidewall for more protection vs a p-metric tire. LT tires are usually 8-ply (Load Range D) or 10-ply (Load Range E). Passenger Tires usually have a 4-ply or 6-ply equivalent sidewall. The performance trade-offs of the added material in LT tires are harsher ride, less fuel efficiency, and less responsive handling.

Which type of tire is right for you depends on how you use the truck. P-metric tires are perfectly adequate for pick-up truck owners that rarely go off paved roads, carry heavy loads, or tow a trailer. Many half ton trucks come equipped from the factory with p-metric tires for this very reason. If you own a half ton pick-up truck or full-size SUV and rarely if ever carry a load or go off pavement, then a p-metric tire will be a better choice for your replacement tire. They will ride smoother, last longer, and be more fuel efficient than a LT rated tire in the same size.

If your truck, van or full size SUV comes from the factory rated for LT tires, it is best to replace the tires with LT tires. P-metric to LT is acceptable, but never replace original equipment LT tires with P-metric tires due to them having lower load capacity ratings at maximum air pressure.

If you drive your truck heavily loaded or pull heavy trailer loads frequently, you should consider replacing your p-metric tire with an LT tire. Tradespeople that have their truck or van loaded with tools, supplies and equipment often find that the stiffer LT tires means less sway, and therefore better loaded handling. Others may find that the ride is slightly harsher and not as comfortable as p-metric tires. This is one of the trade-offs you can expect when you replace a p-metric tire with a LT tire.


Popular Bathroom Remodeling Styles

How to Light Your Bathroom: Expert Tips on Choosing Fixtures and More

Great lighting is important in every room in the house, but it plays a particularly vital role in a bathroom. Choose the wrong bulb and you wind up looking jaundiced as you put on your makeup; place a fixture in the wrong spot and you’re shaving in the shadows. “Sometimes people think a sconce alone will be romantic, and it just doesn’t work,”

“You want a few different sources of lighting to make the room pretty but also functional.” Install extra lights based on the activity. Does the room’s overhead fixture not provide enough light to shave in the shower? Add a recessed can light with a watertight seal. Do you apply makeup in the bathroom? Bring in a makeup mirror with a built-in light. Do you want to add personality and atmosphere? Hang a chandelier for visual interest (though it shouldn’t be your main light source).

Maximize natural light.“The best thing you can do is bring in lots of natural light,” “It’s the way people see you in the world.” So make sure window treatments let the light pour in. If you’re designing a new home or renovating, the best place to put a bathroom is facing north: light from a northern exposure is indirect, creating a soft, diffused light.

Place fixtures wisely.When choosing fixtures for a bathroom, Sneed prefers four-inch recessed can lights overhead, which have a clean look. “For functionality, you really must have an overhead light,” The designer pairs an overhead fixture with sconces alongside or above the mirror to make the reflection more flattering. “It’s important that there is some light between your face and the mirror,” she says. “If you’re just backlit, you wind up with your face in shadow.”

Choose the right bulbs choosing 2700K LEDs for bathrooms she designs. “It’s the closest you get to natural daylight,” she says. She opts for bright bulbs—150 watts or the equivalent—but puts overhead fixtures on a dimmer. “Careful observations need stronger light, but a dim light is calming and romantic,” she says. “A bathroom calls for both.”

Smart Details That Make This Rental Bathroom Look Totally Customized

“I bought it just because I loved it,” she recalls, “but when I got home and was looking at it, it hit me that it might be something fun in the bathroom.” She popped out for some wallpaper glue and stuck the sheet above a row of existing pink tile, then ran out immediately to buy the rest of the store’s stock and order some more.

Wrapping Paper Used as Wallpaper

Truth be told, you can use everything from fabric to magazine covers as wallpaper with some creative adhering (liquid starch! double-sided tape! staples!). After six years in the apartment Wrapping Paper Used as Wallpaper the wrapping paper, stuck up with actual wallpaper glue and flat sealant, is peeling a bit—a pretty good sign that it will pull right off when she’s ready (if ever!) to move.

Ceiling, Jamb, and Molding Too

Rather than stopping at the edges of the wall, she decided to cover the window jamb, ceiling, and molding: “After putting up the first piece, it just made sense to go all in for maximum effect!”

A Palette That Plays Off the Existing Tile

“I have always hated the bathroom because of the putty-colored border tile and floor. Over the years, I’ve painted it many times, trying to detract from [those features],” ut eventually she found a solution: The sandy tones in the wrapping paper–turned–wallpaper work with the pinky trim rather than against it, and crisp black and white accents in the rest of the decor keep the palette from looking musty.

Nightlight as Decor

“I am a bit shell-obsessed,”  I had to have it for the bathroom.” Nightlights are handy when you’re looking for the sink at night—but finding a cute one is a harder task, so we did the job for you).

Wet rooms – the essential guide to creating the perfect shower space

Want a wet room, but not sure whether it will work in your home? Read on for the advantages and disadvantages of wet rooms, along with some expert design tips

Wet rooms are becoming more and more desirable, and they’re a great way to add value to your home. But how exactly do you go about designing a wet room? We’ve put together a handy guide with everything you need to know, from what tiles to choose to specialist wet room companies you can contact about installation.

Can anyone have a wet room?

In theory, yes. Wet rooms are basically shower rooms that do away with the shower screen and tray, and have an open, fully tiled shower area. If your bathroom is on the small side you probably will need to include a shower screen to prevent everything getting sprayed.

Water drainage

Installing a wet room is a job for the professionals, as a gradient needs to be created along the floor to channel the shower water into a drain and then the entire room needs to be tanked (waterproofed).


Waterproofing wet rooms involves priming the floor, the lower section of the walls and the whole of the wall area around the shower and then covering with a syrupy membrane. Once it’s set, the room is then tiled.

Advantages of wet rooms

Wet rooms are super-stylish and perfect for creating a contemporary look.

As a second bathroom, a wet room can easily increase the value of your home.

Great for small bathrooms – removing the bath creates loads more space.

Wet rooms are, in general, easier to clean. There’s no shower screen or tray to worry about and if you go for a wall-hung sink and toilet, it’s easier still.

If it’s done properly, your floor (the bit under the tiles) is better protected than it would be in a standard bathroom.

Bathroom speakers guide – the lowdown on splashproof sound systems

Looking to belt out show tunes in the shower, catch up on the news or listen to podcasts? These should do the trick

Their lack of regular power sockets and water hazards aplenty means bathrooms haven’t always been the easiest place to enjoy your favourite tracks. But thanks to developments in wireless tech and speaker quality, you can up the tempo of your daily ablutions. And by streaming from services such as Spotify or Deezer, the options are virtually endless.

How can I get the best sound quality in my bathroom?

If you’d rather soak in silence that listen to poor-quality sound, consider linking your bathroom to a home music system. Waterproof speakers are wired to an audio player and amplifier outside the bathroom – music can be controlled via a wall panel.

All bathroom electrics must conform to strict safety regulations – a qualified electrician should always carry out the installation and can advise you on what is and isn’t possible in your particular space.

I can’t afford a full home music system. Is there a cheaper option?

Bluetooth speakers that stream music from a smartphone or tablet are our retro-fit friend. For safe bathroom use, they’re powered by waterproof low-voltage transformers connected to the mains. The most common are in-ceiling speakers and those in mirrors and cabinets. Bluetooth devices usually have at least a 10-metre range, so you can leave your phone or tablet outside the bathroom, safe from water, and the music will continue to play.

What choices do I have if I don’t want to rewire?

Go for a portable solution. There are plenty of waterproof Bluetooth speakers available and the humble shower radio, now with vastly improved DAB quality, is always an option. Try UE’s fully waterproof speakers, which can survive a dunking in the bath and will still play music while it’s floating.

Bathroom extractor fans – everything you need to know

Are you thinking about investing in a bathroom extractor fan? When you have a hot shower then leave damp towels in your bathroom to dry out, the moisture they add to the air condenses on colder surfaces, encouraging mould and mildew to grow. Fitting an extractor fan will control this condensation and prevent damage and mould, which can cause health problems.

Do I you need a bathroom extractor?

It’s not a must, but if your bathroom has little or no natural ventilation, and you want to enjoy hot showers without worrying about damage being caused by the steam, they’re definitely worth putting in

Other ways to help keep condensation at bay are to allow plenty of air to circulate throughout your home, so keep windows and doors open as much as possible; wipe down surfaces and walls to remove excess moisture and avoid leaving wet towels on the floor, as these will encourage mould growth.

What should I look out for?

You’ll see and hear your fan every day, so it’s worth paying more for a good looking model that’s quiet, too. Often fans are connected to the mains, so they come on when you turn the bathroom lights on. A fan with a separate pull switch could be more suitable if you’re showering during the day or worried about noise at night.

Where can it be positioned?

You need to check your fan is safe for each ‘zone’. Zones 1 and 2 are in close proximity to the shower or bath, so you’ll need a SELV (Safety Extra Low Voltage), 12v or LV fan, requiring a transformer housed outside the zone, or one that has an IP45-rated motor.

Why Hire Professionals In Hydro Jetting Service

Hydro Jetting Experts

What is Hydro Jetting

Hydro jetting is a technique to clean the clogged pipes, drains, sewer lines, and etc. It is useful in clearing the blockage that might be disrupting the water supply. Many a time, this clogging might not lead to blocking and may result in contamination of water which can be dangerous to your health. If this happens to be the case, then it’s the right time for you to call your plumber and get it cleaned.

Hydro jetting machines have a large tanker of water and connections that blast water. A blast of water of very high velocity that exerts a lot of pressure is used to scour the inner surface of the pipes. This high-velocity water is capable of removing any build-up, grease, sand, silt, and even the long struck debris. In hydro jetting, the plumber usually inspects the place with the help of advanced video cameras or related equipment

Such inspection helps in identifying the problem at the grass-root level and then getting the correct solution. Later, a nozzle (which is mostly self-propelled) is inserted into the pipe or drain. After the insertion process, as soon as the nozzle encounters a clog it blasts water. This high-pressure jet starts to remove or dissolve debris at the required positions and does the cleaning work. Moreover, a lot of novice plumbers miss this step but it is advisable to not miss it

A video camera inspection must be carried out, after the cleaning process. This will help in evaluating the condition of the pipe after hydro jetting. The hydro jetting technique is preferred by plumbers over other classic techniques. This is because of its efficiency and the lesser amount of time it takes. Unlike snaking that only breaks the clogs, hydro jetting is capable of removing the scales as well.

When is Hydro Jetting Used

When you encounter a major clogging in your drain, then either you can do some clean by yourself or get a professional to do it for you. However, if you do it, it will be manual and not a permanent solution to the problem.  You will surely leave out the grease on the wall and it will soon start working as the adhesive for the new junk. On the other hand, hydro jetting will delay or curb down the entire process to unimaginable extents. So, it is advisable to get the work done by a professional plumber only because the plumber would know a lot of things that you don’t.


A professional snaking of the kitchen line will typically be the first step in unclogging the line. If the snake encounters a  hard blockage or grease and sludge is pulled back from the line, drain experts will usually recommend a kitchen hydro-jetting service. It will remove the blockages and clean the line which can also remove any unsightly odors caused by the buildup in the line.

What is Hydro-Jetting?

Using high-pressure water streams and specialty nozzles, hydro-jetting cleans, descales, and removes the toughest kitchen and sewer line clogs

Hydro-jetting uses between 1,500 and 4,000 PSI to scour the insides of the pipelines removing years of hard scale, cutting through roots, and dissolving grease and sludge backing up the pipelines.

The specialty nozzles attached to jetting hoses are designed for specific drain blockages and pipe diameters. They strategically direct the flow of water to rotate once inside the line. They are important to the hydro-jetting process and require advanced training and skill to properly clean drain lines.

Hydro-Jetting Benefits 

Drains become clogged due to heavy buildup, abuse of the line, roots, and clogs over time. In kitchen lines, the most common clogs result from grease, fats, and oils accumulating on the inside of the pipe. They slowly close off the diameter of the line causing backups.

Things Your Should Know About Hydro Jetting

There are a bunch of methods plumbers use to get rid of clogged drains. A severely blocked sewer line, for instance, will require a more forceful approach. One of these approaches includes hydro jetting. If you’re not familiar with the term, you’re in luck. That means you haven’t had any severe issues with your sewer line before

If you ever wondered how a plumbing contractor is even able to get rid of a clog in the middle of the sewer line without tearing it apart, hydro jetting is one of those solutions. Basically, the name of the solution speaks for itself. Hydro jetting uses highly compressed water to blast away at the clogs and clean the insides of the pipes at the same time. That’s basically the gist of it.

What is hydro jetting?

When drain snakes aren’t able to breach through the clogs, plumbers have another solution up their sleeves and that’s hydro jetting. It’s basically pressurized water used to get rid of any stubborn clogs. With the use of a camera, plumbers are able to know where the blockage is. This gives the plumbers a clear view of the problem and allows them to position the hydro jet properly.

How does the process work?

As earlier indicated, hydro jetting uses highly compressed water to blast away at the blockage. This process involves only water. No additives or chemicals are used in the process. This makes it safe for the pipes and the environment. The good thing about this method is that it cleans out the inner lining of the pipes. This means there won’t be any residue that’s left lying on the inner surface of the pipes that would probably be a starter for another blockage. It’s like a more powerful version of a household power washer.

When is the right time to have hydro jetting?

Basically, this type of service is applicable for instances where regular snaking is not working. There are some instances, most likely worst-case scenarios, which will not be solved by snaking alone. Hydro jetting is most commonly used for unblocking mineral deposits and other build ups in the pipelines. It is also recommended before pipe relining as dirty sewer pipes won’t hold the new lining at all.


Hydro-jetting, also known as hydro-scrubbing or hydro-cleaning, is not your run-of-the-mill pipe-cleaning technique. By deploying intensely pressurized water, hydro-jetting completely eradicates rubbish, debris, and other obstructions from sewer pipes and lines. It’s much more effective than mechanical rodding and drain snakes for removing nasty roots, grease, rocks, and mineral deposits.

How Does Hydro-Jetting Work?

Hydro-jetting equipment consists of:

A water tank

A specialized, high-pressure hose

A machine that pressurizes water

Flowing at a tempo of 18 to 20 gallons per minute, the water reaches up to 5,000 psi (pounds per square inch) and is blasted into sewer pipes through what is called a ”cleanout.” Every system is installed with a cleanout. It enables plumbers to reach into the lines for cleaning purposes. The nozzle of a hydro-jet is inserted at the downstream end of the system, and the water blasts upward, clearing out waste. After the job is completed, the waste and water all come back down—thanks to gravity—and leave the system as normal.

Hydro-jetting should always be completed by an expert. Doing this job without the required experience could result in further damage to your pipes or plumbing equipment. Not all jobs that need this high-pressure blast of water will require the maximum psi. Experienced plumbers know exactly what pressure to use and how many gallons per minute should be sent through your system.

When Does a Plumber Use Hydro-Jetting?

Hydro-jetting can be an extremely helpful tool for a wide range of plumbing issues. But before your plumber decides on this method, they will often do a video camera inspection. Sending a camera down the pipes can help your plumber understand exactly what the issue is and where it lies in your plumbing.


Routine plumbing maintenance is extremely important when your plumbing system is at stake. If your pipes were installed by a professional, they are meant to last for many years, if properly taken care of. But what if you have purchased an older house where a previous owner neglected his pipes completely?

Most likely the drain and sewer systems accumulated a significant amount of waste and deposit during the time of former owner’s use, so they cannot operate to the highest efficiency. Drain clogs are also not fun, no matter whether they are big or small. Things like tree roots and amassed slush from years of all the junk going down your drains that were not supposed to be flushed are some of the reasons why these kinds of clogs formed in the first place

If nothing works and you don’t know what to do, a plumbing treatment known as hydro jetting can save you the trouble. Also in order to clean up your drain or sewer system, hydro jetting services will come in handy.

So what is hydro jetting?

Hydro jetting is a plumbing method that uses high-powered gusts of water to blast through everything that stands in its way. This high-pressure water treatment can get to 4,000 psi but it won’t do any harm to your pipes and clear some of the most stubborn clogs. If the opening of the pipe is really narrow because of all the junk inside the pipe, hydro jetting technique can literally scrape out the insides of your pipe to return the opening to its original condition.

Some homeowners think that it is quite possible to clean the drains with any high pressure hose, however, the amount of pressure and skill required are not the same. If you don’t want to get disappointed, do not place your power washer inside a seriously clogged drain – the results won’t be the ones you expected.  The water gusts created by a hydro jetting machine are powerful enough to damage your plumbing and even cause injury, unless they are performed by a qualified technician. Hydro jetting is not the plumbing technique that you might dare attempt on your own.

The Benefits Of A Flat Roof System

How do you increase the pitch on a flat roof?

Do flat roofs have a pitch?

A flat roof is a roof which is almost level in contrast to the many types of sloped roofs. The slope of a roof is properly known as its pitch and flat roofs have up to approximately 10°. The National Roofing Contractors Association defines a low-slope roof as having a slope of 3-in-12 or less.

How do you change a flat roof to a sloped roof?

How to Replace a Flat Roof With a Sloped Roof Remove the roofing membrane of the flat roof. A flat roof is easily replaced by a one-way slope or shed roof. Cut rafters to the hypotenuse of the roof plane depth and stud wall height. Apply the polyethylene sheeting and roof underlayment, and place the rolled roofing or shingles.

Can I change a flat roof to a pitched roof?

Simply replacing your existing flat roof with a new one should be a pretty straightforward process. When converting your flat roof into a pitched roof, that’s when planning permission may come into play. A low-pitched roof should be easy enough to gain planning permission for.

Can you change the pitch of your roof?

Changing the pitch of a roof is only possible when a roof’s internal and structural materials are also replaced. When a roof’s ridges, walls and rafters are switched out, there is a chance to create a new architectural design that can change the pitch of the roof.

What is the smallest pitch for a roof?

The smallest pitch of a roof is 1/4:12, which translates to 1/4 inch rise to 12 inches of run. Such a small pitch can only work with built-up roofing or specialized synthetic roofing.

Increase the pitch by building a roof over an existing roof

When your roof needs to be replaced, often you have to have the entire roof removed before you begin to replace it. But if you have an old home with a decaying roof, especially a low-pitched roof, removing the old roof and replacing it may not be practical. In this case, you can build a new roof over the old – with a caveat. You must not build the new roof directly over the old. A new coat of shingles over decaying shingles will cause your roof deck to decay. The solution is changing the roof pitch or building a new roof at a higher pitch than the old roof.

Raise the Roof Pitch

The roof pitch is how much the roof slants. You’re going to want the pitch of your new roof to be steeper than that of the old roof. If you choose a simple trussed roof or addition with two angled planes, that will be the easiest project. And this is a project best saved for dry weather. Before you start, you should have an engineer or architect verify the structural integrity of your home. The cheapest option would be to leave the old roof in place and place the new rafters over the existing roof.

Use Premade Roof Trusses

Premade roofing trusses will be easier and take less time than installing a stick-built roof. Premade trusses will form the skeleton of your new roof above your old roof. Make sure the pitch of the trusses is the pitch that you want for your new roof. A common house roof pitch is 5 by 12, which means it slopes up from the wall at 5 inches per foot.

Things You’ll Remove

You’ll need to remove the siding where it meets the roof. Remove the top several levels to expose the wall. You’ll also need to remove the soffit. Take care if there are any electrical outlets in the soffit. Make sure to disconnect those before starting. Once the soffit is removed, the old roof trusses are exposed.

Installing the New Roof

To provide a framework for the new trusses, nail 2-by-6-inch strips of wood around the perimeter of the roof. Or, if you want to raise the roof a bit more, install fascia around the roof perimeter, attached to the new soffit, and nail the new roof deck to crown molding above the fascia. Make sure you plan all this well in advance so you’re prepared when you do the installation.

If possible, remove any plywood under the old roof, especially if it’s rotting. Also, remove any flashing and air vents by prying out or unscrewing the fasteners that hold in the fixture.

Doing the Heavy Lifting

Once your demolition is complete, you’ll need to set your trusses in place over the existing rafters. To be safe, you’ll need several people to assist you. The trusses should be placed 24 inches apart. Consider that each truss is likely 1 and a half inches wide, so take that into your calculation. To properly install each truss, you will use 2 by 4 wood strips from the ground up to hold the truss in place on each side of the roof. For safety purposes, it’s best to have two people hold the truss in place where it meets the 2 by 4 and one or two people to set the truss upright and fasten it. Use a level to get the truss vertically plumb, and fasten it to the walls through the truss bearing point with framing nails and a hammer.

Once the row of trusses is complete, set a ridge board across the top to connect them from each end. Then nail the trusses to the ridge board. Use a level to make sure the ridge board stays even. To fasten the trusses to the wall caps, use hurricane clips, which are metal brackets that hold the trusses tight to the walls. Do this on both sides.

Steps to Finish the Job

Install flashing at the roof eave and rake using drip edge flashing. Install the eave flashing first, then the rake. These should look neat at the corners. Nail these at the high points of the roof. Install metal flashing where you have air vents, holding it in place with roofing cement. You’ll need to use step flashing around a chimney and protect it with counter flashing. The counter flashing will need to be bent even with the brick design on the chimney and set into place with mortar.

How to Change Your Roof Pitch

There are many reasons for a homeowner to want to change the pitch or slope of a roof. Flat or low-slope roofs may develop leaks because of poor drainage. An existing roof may not provide enough attic space for storage. An addition may look better with a higher pitch on the old part of the house. Whatever the reason, changing the pitch on a roof requires removing at least some of the roofing and a significant alteration will involve changing the basic framing by installing new rafters or trusses. It requires good carpentry and roofing skills.

Flat or Low-Slope

  • Alter the pitch on a flat or low-slope roof with some type of rigid foam insulation; at least two different types are made in sloped panels. Remove the existing roof covering down to the underlying wood sheathing. Make sure the sheathing is solid and remove any protruding nails. Repair any broken or water-damaged sheathing.
  • Install rigid foam panels with various tapers and thicknesses; insulation panels generally vary from slopes of from 1/8 to 1/2 inch per foot, with sheets butted together to cover the length of the roof. Use a single slope from one end to another or various types of multiple slopes to drain on two or more sides. Fasten tapered panels with adhesive or mechanical fasteners, depending on the manufacturer’s recommendations.
  • Put down any required vapor or thermal barriers, according to local building codes. Cover the tapered roof with a membrane such as ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber, thermoplastic olefin or polyvinyl chloride. Make sure metal flashing is properly installed on all roof edges and around any penetrations, such as chimneys or vent pipes.

Pitched Roof

  • Change the pitch on an existing sloped roof by removing the old roof and framing. Take off shingles or other roof covering and remove the membrane and sheathing. Use a pry bar to pull loose shingles and wood decking. Strip the roof to its rafters or trusses.
  • Remove rafters or trusses one at a time. Use a pry bar to pull nails loose, then remove them with a crow bar or hammer. Drop old framing down to the ground; get help — don’t try to remove and drop rafter or truss framing alone. Inspect the wall caps once all framing is removed and repair or replace any damaged cap boards.
  • Use prefabricated trusses to put a new pitch on the roof. Give the width and length of the roof and a chosen pitch to a truss supplier to build trusses to order. Use at least a 6/12 pitch, rising 6 inches per foot of slope, to provide attic storage; get special attic roof trusses to make a room inside the new roof.
  • Raise trusses to the roof, spaced at 24-inch intervals. Fasten them to the wall caps with 16d framing nails and a hammer through the truss ends into the wall caps. Use a level to plumb each truss. Cover truss rafters with oriented strand board, fastened with 8d galvanized nails. Put metal flashing on edges and peaks and any vents or penetrations. Staple on roofing paper and finish with shingles or other roofing.